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Alcohol

Abstainer: Never consumed a full serve of alcohol.

Alcohol: A central nervous system depressant made from fermented starches. Alcohol inhibits brain functions, dampens the motor and sensory centres and makes judgement, coordination and balance more difficult.

Closed treatment episode: A period of contact between a client and a treatment provider or team of providers. An episode is closed when treatment is completed, there has been no further contact between the client and the treatment provider for 3 months or when treatment is ceased (see reason for cessation).

Ex-drinker: A person who has consumed a full serve of alcohol in his or her lifetime, but not in the previous 12 months.

Lifetime risk: Defined as the accumulated risk from drinking either on many drinking occasions, or on a regular (for example, daily) bases over a lifetime. The lifetime risk of harm from alcohol-related disease injury increases with the amount consumed. For healthy men and women, drinking no more than 2 standard drinks on any day reduces the lifetime risk of harm from alcohol-related disease or injury.

Main treatment type: The principal activity that is determined at assessment by the treatment provider to treat the client's alcohol or other drug problem for the principal drug of concern.

Principal drug of concern: The main substance that the client stated led them to seek treatment from an alcohol and drug treatment agency.

Recent drinker: consumed alcohol in the previous 12 months

Single occasion risk: A single occasion is defined as a consequence of drinks taken without the blood alcohol concentration reaching zero in between. The risk of an alcohol-related injury arising from a single occasion of drinking increases with the amount consumed. For healthy men and women, drinking no more than four standard drinks on a single occasion reduces the risk of alcohol-related injury arising from that occasion.

Standard drink: Contains 10 g of alcohol (equivalent to 12.5 mL of alcohol). Also referred to as a full serve.

Treatment episode: The period of contact between a client and a treatment provider or a team of providers. Each treatment episode has 1 principal drug of concern and 1 main treatment type. If the principal drug or main treatment changes, then a new episode is recorded.

Illicit drugs

Closed treatment episode: A period of contact between a client and a treatment provider or team of providers. An episode is closed when treatment is completed, there has been no further contact between the client and the treatment provider for 3 months or when treatment is ceased (see reason for cessation).

Concurrent (12-month) drug use: Used of 2 or more substances during the past 12 months

Ever use: Used an illicit substance at least once in lifetime.

Ex-user: A person who has used a substance in his or her lifetime, but not in the previous 12 months.

Illicit drugs: Illegal drugs, drugs and volatile substances used illicitly, and pharmaceuticals used for non-medical purposes. The survey included questions on the following illicit drugs:

  • pain-killers/analgesics*
  • tranquillisers/sleeping pills*
  • steroids*
  • meth/amphetamines*
  • cannabis
  • heroin
  • Methadone or buprenorphine**
  • other opiates (opioids)*
  • cocaine
  • hallucinogens
  • ecstasy
  • ketamine
  • GHB
  • synthetic cannabinoids
  • other emerging psychoactive substances
  • inhalants
  • (any) injected drug

Note

*used for non-medical purposes
** non-maintenance program

Injected drugs: The injection of drugs that were not medically prescribed to inject.

Main treatment type: The principal activity that is determined at assessment by the treatment provider to treat the client's alcohol or other drug problem for the principal drug of concern.

Methadone program: A program for opiate addicts, usually conducted in an outpatient setting. These programs use a long-acting synthetic opiate medication, usually methadone or levo-alpha acetyl methadol, administered orally for a sustained period at a dosage sufficient to prevent opiate withdrawal, block the effects of illicit opiate use and decrease opiate craving.

Non-maintenance: Use of a substance other than as part of a medically supervised maintenance program (this includes methadone).

Non-medical use: Use of drugs either alone or with other drugs to induce or enhance a drug experience, for performance enhancement or for cosmetic purposes (this includes pain-killers/analgesics, tranquilisers/sleeping pills, steroids and meth/amphetamines and other opioids such as morphine or pethidine).

Opiate/opioid substitution treatment (OST): A form of healthcare for heroin and other opiate-dependent people using prescribed opioid agonists, which have some similar or identical properties to heroin and morphine on the brain and which alleviate withdrawal symptoms and block the craving for illicit opiates. OST includes methadone, buprenorphine, and buprenorphine with naloxone.

Principal drug of concern: The main substance that the client stated led them to seek treatment from an alcohol and drug treatment agency

Seizure (illicit drugs): Is the confiscation by a law enforcement agency of a quantity of an illicit drug or a regulated drug being used or possessed unlawfully, whether or not an arrest is made in conjunction with that confiscation. The amount of drug seized may be recorded by weight, volume or as a unit count-for example, number of tablets, plants or bags. The method of estimating the amount of drug seized varies between and within jurisdictions. For example, seizures of amphetamine in tablet form may be weighed or counted.

Treatment episode: The period of contact between a client and a treatment provider or a team of providers. Each treatment episode has 1 principal drug of concern and 1 main treatment type. If the principal drug or main treatment changes, then a new episode is recorded.

Tobacco

Branded (illicit) tobacco: tobacco products (mostly cigarettes) that are smuggled into Australia without payment of the applicable customs duty.

Current smoker: Reported smoking daily, weekly or less than weekly at the time of the survey

Ever-smoker: A person who has smoked at least 100 cigarettes in their lifetime.

Ex-smoker: A person who has smoked at least 100 cigarettes or equivalent tobacco in his or her lifetime, but does not smoke at all now.

Illicit tobacco: includes both unbranded tobacco and branded tobacco products on which no excise, customs duty or Goods and Services Tax (GST) was paid.

Never smoker: A person who does not smoke now and has smoked fewer than 100 cigarettes or the equivalent tobacco in his or her lifetime

Non-smoker: Never smoked or an ex-smoker.

Occasional smoking-adults: The smoking of 1 or more cigarettes, roll your-own cigarettes, cigars or pipe, weekly or less than weekly (excluding chewing tobacco and smoking of non-tobacco products).

Occasional smoking-young people: The smoking of tobacco (cigarettes only) at least 1 day per month.

Regular smoking-prison entrants: An adult who reported at the time of the interview that he or she regularly smoked 1 or more cigarettes, cigars or pipes every day or most days.

Regular smoking-young people: The smoking of tobacco (cigarettes only) at least 1 day per week.

Second-hand smoke (also called environmental smoke): The exposure to tobacco smoke, or the chemicals in tobacco smoke, without actually smoking.

Smoker: A person who reported currently smoking daily, weekly or less often than weekly.

Unbranded (illicit) tobacco (also known as chop-chop): finely cut, unprocessed loose tobacco that has been grown, distributed and sold without government intervention or taxation.

Population groups

Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander: A person of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander descent who identifies as an Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander.

Australian Statistical Geographic Standard (ASGS) Remoteness Area: The ABS Australian Statistical Geographic Standard (ASGC) Remoteness Areas classification allocates 1 of 5 remoteness categories to areas, depending on their distance from a range of 5 types of population centre. These classifications reflect the level of remoteness at the time of the 2011 Census. Areas are classified as Major cities, Inner regional, Outer regional, Remote and Very remote. For the NDSHS analysis Remote and Very remote were grouped together.

Indigenous: A person of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander descent who identifies as an Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander.

Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10): A survey device that is used to measure for screening populations on psychological distress. The scale consists of 10 questions on non-specific psychological distress, and relates to the level of anxiety and depressive symptoms a person may have felt in the preceding 4-week period. It is only used for people aged 18 or older.

Mental illness (mental health condition): Have been diagnosed or treated for depression, anxiety disorder, schizophrenia, bi-polar disorder or other form of psychosis in the previous 12 months.

Prisoner: Adult prisoners (aged 18 and over) held in custody whose confinement is the responsibility of a correctional services agency. Includes sentenced prisoners and prisoners held in custody awaiting trial or sentencing (remandees). Juvenile offenders, persons in psychiatric custody, police cell detainees, those in periodic detention, asylum seekers or Australians held in overseas prisons are not included.

Prison entrant: A person aged at least 18, entering full-time prison custody, either on remand (awaiting a trial or sentencing) or on a sentence. Prisoners who have been transferred from one prison to another are not included as entrants.

Socioeconomic status and the Index of Relative Socio-Economic Advantage and Disadvantage: The Index of Relative Socio-Economic Advantage and Disadvantage is one of four Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA) compiled by the Australian Bureau of Statistics after each Census of Population and Housing. The SEIFA aims to represent the socioeconomic status (SES) of Australian communities, and pinpoint areas of advantage and disadvantage. The population living in the 20% of areas with the greatest overall level of disadvantage is described as the 'lowest SES'. The 20% at the other end of the scale-the top fifth-is described as the 'highest SES'.

Drug treatment services

Additional drugs: Clients receiving treatment for their own drug use nominate a principal drug of concern that has led them to seek treatment and additional drugs of concern, of which up to 5 are recorded in the AODTS NMDS. Clients receiving treatment for someone else's drug use do not nominate drugs of concern.

Administrative cessation: Includes episodes that ended due to a change in main treatment type, delivery setting or principal drug of concern, or where the client was transferred to another service provider.

Alcohol: A central nervous system depressant made from fermented starches. Alcohol inhibits brain functions, dampens the motor and sensory centres and makes judgement, coordination and balance more difficult.

Closed treatment episode: A period of contact between a client and a treatment provider or team of providers. An episode is closed when treatment is completed, there has been no further contact between the client and the treatment provider for 3 months or when treatment is ceased (see reason for cessation).

Expected cessation: Includes episodes where the treatment was completed, or where the client ceased to participate at expiation or by mutual agreement.

Main treatment type: The principal activity that is determined at assessment by the treatment provider to treat the client's alcohol or other drug problem for the principal drug of concern.

Methadone program: A program for opiate addicts, usually conducted in an outpatient setting. These programs use a long-acting synthetic opiate medication, usually methadone or levo-alpha acetyl methadol, administered orally for a sustained period at a dosage sufficient to prevent opiate withdrawal, block the effects of illicit opiate use and decrease opiate craving.

Non-maintenance: Use of a substance other than as part of a medically supervised maintenance program (this includes methadone).

Non-medical use: Use of drugs either alone or with other drugs to induce or enhance a drug experience, for performance enhancement or for cosmetic purposes (this includes pain-killers/analgesics, tranquilisers/sleeping pills, steroids and meth/amphetamines and other opioids such as morphine or pethidine).

Opiate/opioid substitution treatment (OST): A form of healthcare for heroin and other opiate-dependent people using prescribed opioid agonists, which have some similar or identical properties to heroin and morphine on the brain and which alleviate withdrawal symptoms and block the craving for illicit opiates. OST includes methadone, buprenorphine, and buprenorphine with naloxone.

Principal drug of concern: The main substance that the client stated led them to seek treatment from an alcohol and drug treatment agency.

Reason for cessation: The reason for the client ceasing to receive a treatment episode from an alcohol and other drug treatment service:

  • ceased to participate against advice: Where the service provider is aware of the client's intention to stop participating in treatment, and the client ceases despite advice from staff that such action is against the client's best interest
  • ceased to participate at expiation: Where the client has fulfilled their obligation to satisfy expiation requirements (for example, participation in a treatment program to avoid having a criminal conviction being recorded against them) as part of a police or court diversion scheme and chooses not to continue with further treatment
  • ceased to participate by mutual agreement: Where the client ceases participation by mutual agreement with the service provider, even though the treatment plan has not been completed. This may include situations where the client has moved out of the area
  • ceased to participate involuntarily: Where the service provider stops the treatment due to non-compliance with the rules or conditions of the program
  • drug court or sanctioned by court diversion service: Where the client is returned to court or jail due to non-compliance with the program

Treatment completed: Where the treatment was completed as planned

Transferred to another service provider: This includes situations where the service provider is no longer the most appropriate and the client is transferred or referred to another service. For example, transfers could occur for clients between non-residential and residential services or between residential services and a hospital. This excludes situations where the original treatment was completed before the client transferred to a different provider for other treatment.

Treatment type: The type of activity that is used to treat the client's alcohol or other drug problem:

  • assessment only: Where only assessment is provided to the client. Note that service providers would normally include an assessment component in all treatment types
  • counselling: Is the most common treatment for problematic alcohol and/or other drug use and can include cognitive behaviour therapy, brief intervention, relapse intervention and motivational interviewing
  • information and education only
  • pharmacotherapy, where the client receives another type of treatment in the same treatment episode: Includes drugs such as naltrexone, buprenorphine and methadone used as maintenance therapies or relapse prevention for people who are addicted to certain types of opioids. Where a pharmacotherapy is used for withdrawal, it is included in the 'withdrawal' category.
  • rehabilitation: Focuses on supporting clients in stopping their drug use and helping to prevent psychological, legal, financial, social and physical consequences of problematic drug use. Rehabilitation can be delivered in a number of ways, including residential treatment services, therapeutic communities and community-based rehabilitation services
  • support and case management only: Support includes activities such as helping a client who occasionally calls an agency worker for emotional support. Case management is usually more structured than 'support'. It can assume a more holistic approach, taking into account all client needs including general welfare needs, and it includes assessment, planning, linking, monitoring and advocacy
  • withdrawal management (detoxification): Includes medicated and non-medicated treatment to assist in managing, reducing or stopping the use of a drug of concern.

Treatment episode: The period of contact between a client and a treatment provider or a team of providers. Each treatment episode has 1 principal drug of concern and 1 main treatment type. If the principal drug or main treatment changes, then a new episode is recorded.

Unexpected cessation: Includes episodes where the client ceased to participate against advice, without notice or due to non-compliance.